7. Surpassed by eight-month losses beginning in August and September 1979.
8. When it comes to hedging short-term bond risk, note that neither real estate nor
Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS) did so despite both being proven hedges
against inflation long-term and inflation is a catalyst for rising rates. Note also that
long-term corporate bonds and preferred stocks each had negative returns in both
figures 11 a nd 12.
9. Technically both were negative in 1946; however, with a −0.1-percent return it could
be argued that bonds were flat. Also while both were negative in 1931, bonds were a
diversifier of stocks with returns of − 5. 3 percent and − 43. 9 percent, respectively.
Andreason, Nancy. 2014. Secrets of the Creative Brain. The Atlantic (July/August). http://www.
Asch, Solomon. 1955. Opinions and Social Pressure. http://www.panarchy.org/asch/social.
Baumeister, Roy, Ellen Bratslavsky, Catrin Finkenauer, and Kathleen Vohs. 2001. Bad Is
Stronger Than Good. Review of General Psychology 5, no. 4: 323–370.
Banerjee, Sudipto. 2014. How Does Household Expenditure Change With Age for Older
Americans? Employee Benefits Research Institute. Notes
35, no. 9 (September).
Blanchett, David. 2013. Estimating the True Cost of Retirement. Working paper, Morningstar
Investment Management. http://corporate.morningstar.com/ib/documents/
Calaprice, Alice. 2005. The New Quotable Einstein. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carson, Shelley, Jordan Peterson, and Daniel Higgins. 2003. Decreased Latent Inhibition
Is Associated with Increased Creative Achievement in High-Functioning Individuals.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85, no. 3: 499–506.
Csikszentmihaly, Mihaly. 1996. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and
Invention. New York: Harper Collins.
Dellis, Marie, and Eugene Gaier. 1970. Identification of Creativity: The Individual. Psychological
Bulletin 73, no. 1 (February): 55–73.
Denning, Steve. 2012. Gary Hamel: What Matters Now: Institutionalizing Innovation (April
The Economist. 2015. What Disruptive Innovation Means (January 25).
Einstein, Albert, and Leopold Infield. 1938. The Evolution of Physics. New York: Simon
Frensch, Peter, and Robert Sternberg. 1989. Expertise and Intelligent Thinking: When Is It
Worse to Know Better? In Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, edited
by R. Sternberg, vol. 5: 157–189. Hillsdale, NJ: Erblaum.
Gardner, Howard. 2011. Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of
Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi. New York: Basic Books.
Goncalo, Jack. 2011. Why No One Really Wants Leadership at the Top. Web blog post.
Bacharach Leadership Group. http://blg-lead.com/why-no-one-really-wants-creativity-at-the-top/.
IBM. 2010. Capitalizing on Complexity: Insights from the Global Chief Executive Survey.
Isaacson, Walter. 2012. The Real Leadership Lessons of Steve Jobs. Harvard Business
Review (April). https://hbr.org/2012/04/the-real-leadership-lessons-of-steve-jobs.
Jobs, Steve. 2005. Stanford University Commencement Address. Palo Alto, California.
Johnson, Eric. 2010. Hyper Loss Aversion: Retirees Show Extremely High Sensitivity to
Loss, But Shy Away from Guarantees That Require Giving Up Control. In Behavioral
Finance and the Post Retirement Crisis, edited by Shlomo Benartzi. Allianz: 8. http://
Kahneman, Daniel. 2011a. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
———. 2011b. Don’t Blink! The Hazards of Confidence. New York Times Magazine
(October 19). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/23/magazine/dont-blink-the-hazards-
Kahneman, Daniel, and Amos Tversky. 1982. The Psychology of Preferences. Scientific
American 246, no. 1 (January): 160–173.
———. 1979. Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. In Choices, Values,
and Frames, edited by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky. New York: Cambridge University
Katz, David. 1950. Gestalt Psychology: Its Nature and Significance. New York: The Ronald
Krucoff, Carol. 1984. The 6 O’Clock Scholar. Washington Post (January 29). https://www.
Kurtzman, Joel. 1997. An Interview with Gary Hamel. Strategy+Business Q4, no. 9
(October 1). http://www.strategy-business.com/article/13304?gko=732a5.
Langer, Ellen. 2014. Mindfulness. Boston: Da Capo Press.
Lo, Andrew. 2005. Reconciling Efficient Markets with Behavioral Finance: The Adaptive
Markets Hypothesis. Journal of Investment Consulting 7, no. 2: 21–44.
Lowenstein, George, and Drazen Prelec. 1993. Preferences for Sequences of Outcomes.
In Choices, Values, and Frames, edited by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky. New York:
Cambridge University Press: 565–577.
Luchins, Abraham. 1942. Mechanizations in Problem Solving. Psychological Monographs
54, no. 6, whole no. 248.
Martindale, Colin. 1999. Biological Bases of Creativity. In Handbook of Creativity, edited
by R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge University Press: 137–149.
Mueller, Jennifer, Shimul Melwani, and Jack Goncalo. 2010. The Bias Against Creativity:
Why People Desire but Reject Creative Ideas. Cornell University. http://digitalcom-
Nickerson, Raymond. 1999. Enhancing Creativity. In Handbook of Creativity, edited by
R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge University Press: 226–250.
Policastro, Emma, and Howard Gardner. 1999. From Case Studies to Robust
Generalizations: An Approach to the Study of Creativity. In Handbook of Creativity,
edited by R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge University Press: 213–225.
Rozin, Paul, and Edward Royzman. 2001. Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and
Contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review 5, no. 4 (November): 296–320.
Roy, Katherine, and Sharon Carson. 2015. Spending In Retirement. J. P. Morgan. http://
Runco, Mark. 2014. Creativity Theories and Themes: Research Development and Practice.
Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
Runco, Mark, and Shawn Sakamoto. 1999. Experimental Studies of Creativity. In Handbook
of Creativity, edited by R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge University Press: 62–92.
Scott, Jason, William Sharpe, and John Watson. 2008. The 4% Rule—At What Price?
Simonton, Dean. 1984. Genius, Creativity and Leadership. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Slovic, Paul, Baruch Fischoff, and Sarah Lichtenstein. 1982. Facts versus Fears:
Understanding Perceived Risk. In Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,
edited by D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky. New York: Cambridge University
Staw, Barry. 1995. Why No One Really Wants Creativity. Chapter 21 in Creative Action in
Organizations: Ivory Tower Visions and Real World Voices, edited by Cameron Ford
and Dennis Gioia. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.: 161–166.
Sternberg, Robert, and Todd Lubart. 1999. The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and
Paradigms. In Handbook of Creativity, edited by R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge
University Press: 3–15.
Thaler, Richard, and Nicholas Barberis. 2005. A Survey of Behavioral Finance. In Advances
in Behavioral Finance, Volume II, edited by R. Thaler. New York: Russell Sage
Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahneman. 1974. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and
Biases. In Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, edited by D. Kahneman,
P. Slovic, and A. Tversky. New York: Cambridge University Press: 3–20.
Waring, Barton, and Laurence Siegel. 2015. The Only Spending Rule Article You Will Ever
Need. Financial Analysts Journal 71, no. 1 (January/February): 91–107.
Weisberg, Robert. 1999. Creativity and Knowledge: A Challenge to Theories. In Handbook
of Creativity, edited by R. Sternberg. New York: Cambridge University Press: 226–250.
White, Erin. 2008. New Breed of Business Gurus Rises. Wall Street Journal (May 5). http://
Wolf, Gary. 1996. Steve Jobs: The Next Insanely Great Thing. Wired (February 1). http://